mnemonic chart



Duffy method

Duffy use


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Chart 11

The OUGH Chart

As Dr Duffy wrote in 1972: "This chart cracks the hard crust of a nut whose meat is soft enough."

It deals with the Old English syllable ough which can be pronounced in eight different ways.

remedial english teaching

Dr Duffy compiled a clever mnemonic containing the eight variations which, when learned by heart, enables access to the correct pronunciations.

A test for competency includes the reading of tough, though, through and thorough.

See the Manual for full details of the proper use of this chart.

This website presented by
the family of educational psychologist
Judith Gleeson
B.A., M.Ed, T.C..
duffy remedial reading
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